This post was originally published on the Kloud blog.
Visual Studio Team Services (VSTS) has recently gained the ability to create build definitions as YAML files. This feature is currently in preview. In this post, I'll explain why this is a great addition to the VSTS platform and why you might want to define your builds in this way. In the next post I'll work through an example of using this feature, and I'll also provide some tips and links to documentation and guidance that I found helpful when constructing some build definitions myself.
What Are Build Definitions?
If you use a build server of some kind (and you almost certainly should!), you need to tell the build server how to actually build your software. VSTS has the concept of a build configuration, which specifies how and when to build your application. The 'how' part of this is the build definition. Typically, a build definition will outline how the system should take your source code, apply some operations to it (like compiling the code into binaries), and emit build artifacts. These artifacts usually then get passed through to a release configuration, which will deploy them to your release environment.
In a simple static website, the build definition might simply be one step that copies some files from your source control system into a build artifact. In a .NET Core application, you will generally use the
dotnet command-line tool to build, test, and publish your application. Other application frameworks and languages will have their own way of building their artifacts, and in a non-trivial application, the steps involved in building the application might get fairly complex, and may even trigger PowerShell or Bash scripts to allow for further flexibility and advanced control flow and logic.
Until now, VSTS has really only allowed us to create and modify build definitions in its web editor. This is a great way to get started with a new build definition, and you can browse the catalog of available steps, add them into your build definition, and configure them as necessary. You can also define and use variables to allow for reuse of information across steps. However, there are some major drawbacks to defining your build definition in this way.
Why Store Build Definitions in YAML?
Build definitions are really just another type of source code. A build definition is just a specification of how your application should be built. The exact list of steps, and the sequence in which they run, is the way in which we are defining part of our system's behaviour. If we adopt a DevOps mindset, then we want to make sure we treat all of our system as source code, including our build definitions, and we want to take this source code seriously.
In November 2017, Microsoft announced that VSTS now has the ability to run builds that have been defined as a YAML file, instead of through the visual editor. The YAML file gets checked into the source control system, exactly the same way as any other file. This is similar to the way Travis CI allows for build definitions to be specified in YAML files, and is great news for those of us who want to treat our build definitions as code. It gives us many advantages.
We can keep build definitions versioned, and can track the history of a build definition over time. This is great for audibility, as well as to ensure that we have the ability to consult or roll back to a previous version if we accidentally make a breaking change.
Keeping Build Definitions with Code
We can store the build definitions alongside the actual code that it builds, meaning that we are keeping everything tidy and in one place. Until now, if we wanted to fully understand the way the application was built, we'd have to look at at the code repository as well as the VSTS build definition. This made the overall process harder to understand and reason about. In my opinion, the fewer places we have to remember to check or update during changes the better.
Related to the last point, we can also use make use of important features of our source control system like branching. If your team uses GitHub Flow or a similar Git-based branching strategy, then this is particularly advantageous.
Let's take the example of adding a new unit test project to a .NET Core application. Until now, the way you might do this is to set up a feature branch on which you develop the new unit test project. At some point, you'll want to add the execution of these tests to your build definition. This would require some careful timing and consideration. If you update the build definition before your branch is merged, then any builds you run in the meantime will likely fail - they'll be trying to run a unit test project that doesn't exist outside of your feature branch yet. Alternatively, you can use a draft version of your build configuration, but then you need to plan exactly when to publish that draft.
If we specify our build definition in a YAML file, then this change to the build process is simply another change that happens on our feature branch. The feature branch's YAML file will contain a new step to run the unit tests, but the master branch will not yet have that step defined in its YAML file. When the build configuration runs on the master branch before we merge, it will get the old version of the build definition and will not try to run our new unit tests. But any builds on our feature branch, or the master branch once our feature branch is merged, will include the new tests.
This is very powerful, especially in the early stages of a project where you are adding and changing build steps frequently.
Taking the above point even further, we can review a change to a build definition YAML file in the same way that we would review any other code changes. If we use pull requests (PRs) to merge our changes back into the master branch then we can see the change in the build definition right within the PR, and our team members can give them the same rigorous level of review as they do our other code files. Similarly, they can make sure that changes in the application code are reflected in the build definition, and vice versa.
Another advantage of storing build definitions in a simple format like YAML is being able to copy and paste the files, or sections from the files, and reuse them in other projects. Until now, copying a step from one build definition to another was very difficult, and required manually setting up the steps. Now that we can define our build steps in YAML files, it's often simply a matter of copying and pasting.
A common technique in many programming environments is linting, which involves running some sort of analysis over a file to check for potential errors or policy violations. Once our build definition is defined in YAML, we can perform this same type of analysis if we wanted to write a tool to do it. For example, we might write a custom linter to check that we haven't accidentally added any credentials or connection strings into our build definition, or that we haven't mistakenly used the wrong variable syntax. YAML is a standard format and is easily parsable across many different platforms, so writing a simple linter to check for your particular policies is not a complex endeavour.
Abstraction and Declarative Instruction
I'm a big fan of declarative programming - expressing your intent to the computer. In declarative programming, software figures out the right way to proceed based on your high-level instructions. This is the idea behind many different types of 'desired-state' automation, and in abstractions like LINQ in C#. This can be contrasted with an imperative approach, where you specify an explicit sequence of steps to achieve that intent.
One approach that I've seen some teams adopt in their build servers is to use PowerShell or Bash scripts to do the entire build. This provided the benefits I outlined above, since those script files could be checked into source control. However, by dropping down to raw script files, this meant that these teams couldn't take advantage of all of the built-in build steps that VSTS provides, or the ecosystem of custom steps that can be added to the VSTS instance.
Build definitions in VSTS are a great example of a declarative approach. They are essentially an abstraction of a sequence of steps. If you design your build process well, it should be possible for a newcomer to look at your build definition and determine what the sequence of steps are, why they are happening, and what the side-effects and outcomes will be. By using abstractions like VSTS build tasks, rather than hand-writing imperative build logic as a sequence of command-line steps, you are helping to increase the readability of your code - and ultimately, you may increase the performance and quality by allowing the software to translate your instructions into actions.
YAML build definitions give us all of the benefits of keeping our build definitions in source control, but still allows us to make use of the full power of the VSTS build system.
YAML files allow for comments to be added, and this is a very helpful way to document your build process. Frequently, build definitions can get quite complex, with multiple steps required to do something that appears rather trivial, so having the ability to document the process right inside the definition itself is very helpful.
Hopefully through this post, I've convinced you that storing your build definition in a YAML file is a much tidier and saner approach than using the VSTS web UI to define how your application is built. In the next post, I'll walk through an example of how I set up a simple build definition in YAML, and provide some tips that I found useful along the way.